2013上学期《硕士生国际事务分析方法论教学大纲》(张昕)

国际事务方法论:研究方法与研究设计

华东师范大学国际关系与地区发展研究院

硕士研究生课程  2013年春学期

任课教师:张昕

上课时间:周三上午8:30-11:00 理科楼404

 

 

   更新日期:2013年3月4日

  (目前的教学大纲仅供参考,我会根据学生和课程进展的具体情况不断调整课程内容。所以每次课程的具体议题、阅读材料以及课后作业请按照课前我发给全班邮件通知为准。请大家经常查阅邮件。)

 

课程主题:

 

   这门课程旨在帮助学生完成三个方面的任务。第一:明确不同类型研究的不同性质(包括研究针对的不同对象) 、其方法论基础、和相应的操作原则。第二、在操作中明确研究过程。结合多个不同细分领域的具体案例和学生们自己的研究计划,分析体验“研究链”中的各个环节,具体包括:确定研究问题,准备文献综述、信息数据搜集、案例研究、问卷调查、访谈、文本内容分析、写作过程与展示写作结果。在时间允许的前提下,我们也会涉及关于学习研究的若干一般经验的讨论。第三,通过师生之间以及学生之间的持续互动,逐步完成一份最终属于学生自己、可以着手开展研究工作的研究设计,帮助大家展开硕士论文的写作。在此过程中,我选择作为讨论对象和范例的具体研究也涵盖多个不同领域和学科传统(不仅仅是传统意义上的“国际关系”),希望借此帮助同学们在设定自己的研究课题时拓宽眼界和思路。

 

   本课程不过多纠结于科学哲学的抽象讨论,而是针对在学生现有研究需求基础上的实际研究过程,帮助大家通过“干中学”理解并实践相关的抽象理论与原则,体会和实践研究方法与过程之“科学性”背后的“艺术性”;在此基础上对于不同类别研究的价值取向和学术本土化等问题也有初步的关照和思考。

 

课程要求:

 

  • 每次课程阅读材料的摘要和批评性总结

 

  • 一到两篇论文审稿评阅

 

  • 一份文献综述

 

  • 分若干步骤逐步发展的研究设计一份

 

课程讨论专题

   第一部分:社会科学研究的性质

 

   1:课程介绍、开场

      从哪里寻找题目?从问题到回答

   2:不同类型的研究

  • 区分不同类型的研究(规范、实证、解释、阐释、预测与建议)

 

  • 政策研究与理论研究的区别

 

  • “情况介绍”型论文的局限

 

  • “土八股”和“洋八股”

 

  • 中国国际问题研究现状

 

   第二部分:研究方法

 

   3:因果关系相关性研究

  • 行动者为中心、“变量”为基础的因果研究
  • 演绎模型的作用和局限
  • 因果关系的确认
  • competing hypothesis, empirically observable implications
  • 变量、操作化 operationalization 、创造性的使用代理变量 proxy

 

   4:比较研究

   比较方法: 为什么要比较、可以比较吗?

   比较的层次、单位

 

   5:案例研究

   案例研究(什么是案例、案例的分析层次、案例的选择、案例研究的理论贡献、案例研究与预测、案例研究与政策研究)

 

   6:时间与历史

   历史研究和社会科学的关联与区别

   制度变迁、路径依赖、规模递增

   反事实分析 (counterfactual)

 

   7:“机制” (Mechanism)

   发现机制与过程追踪(process tracing)

 

   8:行为与结构

 

8: 叙述与阐释

 

9:政策叙述与政策分析

 

第三部分:学习研究过程

 

   10: 文献综述的写作

 

   11:理论与实证的持续互动

  • 读书笔记
  • 信息收集整理与创造性使用
  • 调查与访谈
  • 参与式观察
  • 非量化数据的量化转化与质性数据的分析
  • 档案材料分析

 

   12-13:

 

   研究设计初稿与学生互评

 

阅读材料

 

   (绝大多数阅读材料我会通过邮件发给大家,另一些文档需要大家自己从网上下载。学生需要知道如何通过华师大图书馆进入诸如jstor 等电子文献系统,学生也需要有“翻墙”的能力和渠道。以下仅仅是可能的一些阅读材料,我们会根据大家的硕士论文选题和课程进程选择其中一部分阅读。)

 

 

1. 有关方法论和研究过程的阅读材料

 

   迈克尔·芒格 “提高学术文章写作水平的十条建议” (中文版  http://www.douban.com/note/159393135/; 英文版 http://chronicle.com/article/10-Tips-on-How-to-Write-Less/124268/

 

   彭玉生 “洋八股”与社会科学规范《社会学研究》2010年第2期

 

   乌·额·宝力格:人类学的蒙古探索

http://www.21ccom.net/articles/qqsw/qqgc/article_2012122773844.html

 

   唐世平:浅论历史学和社会科学的相互关系

http://www.21ccom.net/articles/lsjd/sxyj/2012/0210_53384.html

 

   唐世平: 如何做好的研究

   唐世平: how to write a review article

 

Van Evera, Stephen. 1997. Guide to methods for students of political science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Chapter 1 “Hypotheses, Laws, and theories: a user’s guide”; Chapter 2 “What are case studies? How should they be preformed?”

 

Robert Fannion, “How to Formulate a Research Question: A Guide for the Casual Researcher.” Unpublished notes. Reed College.

 

Geddes, Barbara. 2003. Paradigms and sand castles: theory building and research design in comparative politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

 

Fioretos, Orfeo. 2011. "Historical Institutionalism in International Relations." International Organization 65 (2):367-99.

 

Skocpol, Theda, and Margaret Somers. 1980. "The Uses of Comparative History in Macrosocial Inquiry." Comparative Studies in Society and History 22 (02):174-97.

 

Ragin, Charles, and David Zaret. 1983. "Theory and Method in Comparative Research: Two Strategies." Social Forces 61 (3):731-54.

 

Pierson, Paul. 2000. "Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics." The American Political Science Review 94 (2):251-67.

 

Brady, Henry E., and David Collier. 2004. Rethinking social inquiry: diverse tools, shared standards. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

 

Fearon, James D. 1991. "Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science." World Politics 43 (2):169-95.

 

Capoccia, Giovanni, and R. Daniel Kelemen. 2007. "The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism." World Politics 59 (3):341-69.

 

Seawright, J., and J. Gerring. 2008. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options." Political Research Quarterly 61 (2):294-308.

 

Mahoney, James, Erin Kimball, and Kendra Koivu. 2009. "The Logic of Historical Explanation in the Social Sciences." Comparative Political Studies 42 (1):114-46.

 

Lijphart, Arend. 1975. "The Comparable-Cases Strategy in Comparative Research." Comparative Political Studies 8 (2):158-77.

 

Locke, Richard M., and Kathleen Thelen. 1995. "Apples and Oranges Revisited: Contextualized Comparisons and the Study of Comparative Labor Politics." Politics & Society 23 (3):337.

 

Hajer, Maarten, and Wytske Versteeg. 2005. "A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: Achievements, challenges, perspectives." Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 7 (3):175-84.

 

Milliken, Jennifer. 1999. "The Study of Discourse in International Relations: A Critique of Research and Methods." European Journal of International Relations 5 (2):225-54.

 

Goertz, Gary. 2006. Social science concepts: a user's guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Geddes, Barbara. 1990. "How the Cases You Choose Affect the Answers You Get: Selection Bias in Comparative Politics." Political Analysis 2 (1):131-50.

 

George, Alexander L., and Andrew Bennett. 2005. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

 

Ferguson, Niall. 1999. Virtual history: alternatives and counterfactuals. New York: Basic Books.

 

黄宗智 认识中国——走向从实践出发的社会科学《中国社会科学》2005年第一期。

 

黄宗智  学术理论与中国近现代史研究——四个陷阱和一个问题 《学术界》2010年第3期

 

Philip C. C. Huang, “Theory and the Study of Modern Chinese History: Four Traps and A Question,” Modern China 24, No. 2 (April 1998): 183-208.

 

黄宗智 连接经验与理论:建立中国的现代学术《开放时代》2007年第4期,5-25页

 

阎学通、孙学峰 国际关系研究实用方法(第二版) 人民出版社 2007年

 

2. 作为范例的具体研究

 

李放春,“北方土改中的翻身生产中国革命现代性的一个话语历史矛盾溯考” 《中国乡村研究》第3

 

Frieden, Jeffry A. 1994. "International investment and colonial control: a new interpretation." International Organization 48 (4):559-93.

 

 

Posner, Daniel N. 2004. "The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas Are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi." AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 98 (4):529-45.

 

Detraz, Nicole, and Michele M. Betsill. 2009. "Climate Change and Environmental Security: For Whom the Discourse Shifts." INTERNATIONAL STUDIES PERSPECTIVES 10 (3):303-20.

 

Morrison, James Ashley. 2012. "Before Hegemony: Adam Smith, American Independence, and the Origins of the First Era of Globalization." International Organization 66 (03):395-428.

Ikenberry, G. John. “Creating Yesterday’s New World Order: Keynesian ‘New Thinking’ and the Anglo-American Postwar Settlement.” In Ideas & Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, edited by Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane, 57-86. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Mertha, Andrew C., and William R. Lowry. 2006. “Unbuilt Dams: Seminal Events and Policy Change in China, Australia, and the United States.” Comparative Politics 39 (1):1-20.

 

Adamson, Fiona B. 2001. "Democratization and the Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy: Turkey in the 1974 Cyprus Crisis." Political Science Quarterly 116 (2):277-303.

 

O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1978. "State and alliances in Argentina, 1956-1976." The Journal of Development Studies 15 (1): 3-33.

 

Orloff, Ann Shola, and Theda Skocpol. 1984. "Why Not Equal Protection? Explaining the Politics of Public Social Spending in Britain, 1900-1911, and the United States, 1880s-1920." American Sociological Review 49 (6):726-50.

 

Hellman, Joel S. 1998. "Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist Transitions." World Politics 50 (2):203-34.

 

Frye, Timothy. 2006. "Original Sin, Good Works, and Property Rights in Russia." World Politics 58 (4):479-504.

 

Lange, Matthew, James Mahoney, and Matthias vom Hau. 2006. "Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies." American Journal of Sociology 111 (5):1412-62.

 

Rogers Brubaker. 2004. “In the Name of the Nation: Reflections on Nationalism and Patriotism.” Citizenship Studies 8 (2): 115-127.

Sinha, Aseema. 2007. "Global Linkages and Domestic Politics: Trade Reform and Institution Building in India in Comparative Perspective." Comparative Political Studies 40 (10):1183-210.

 

Sinha, Aseema. 2005. "Political Foundations of Market-Enhancing Federalism: Theoretical Lessons from India and China." Comparative Politics 37 (3):337-56.

 

Deets, Stephen. 2006. "Reimagining the Boundaries of the Nation: Politics and the Development of Ideas on Minority Rights." East European Politics & Societies 20 (3):419-46.

 

Peter Ekeh. 1975. “Colonialism and the Two Publics in Africa:  A Theoretical Statement.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 17 (Jan): 91-112.

 

Alejandro Portes. 1973. “Modernity and Development: A Critique.” Studies in Comparative International Development 9 (Fall): 247-79.

 

Terry Karl. 1999. “Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 23 (1): 1–21.

Treisman, Daniel S. 1997. "Russia's "Ethnic Revival": The Separatist Activism of Regional Leaders in a Postcommunist Order." World Politics 49 (2):212-49.

 

Gourevitch, Peter Alexis. 1984. "Breaking with Orthodoxy: The Politics of Economic Policy Responses to the Depression of the 1930s." International Organization 38 (1):95-129.

 

Rogowski, Ronald. 1987. "Trade and the Variety of Democratic Institutions." International Organization 41 (2):203-23.

 

Darden, Keith, and Anna Grzymala-Busse. 2011. "The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse." World Politics 59 (01):83-115.

 

Cornwall, Andrea, and Karen Brock. 2005. "What do buzzwords do for development policy? a critical look at ‘participation’, ‘empowerment’ and ‘poverty reduction’." THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY 26 (7):1043-60.

 

Wengle, Susanne A. 2012. "Post-Soviet Developmentalism and the Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization." Studies in Comparative International Development 47 (1):75-114.

 

Ferchen, Matt. 2012. "Whose China Model is it anyway? The contentious search for consensus." REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (7):1-31.

 

Joseph Stiglitz. 2003. “Democratizing the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank: Governance and Accountability.” Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 16 (1): 111-139.

 

Winterbottom, A., J. Koomen, and G. Burford. 2009. "Female genital cutting: Cultural rights and rites of defiance in Northern Tanzania." African Studies Review 52 (1):47-71.

 

Varshney, Ashutosh. 1993. "Self-limited empowerment: Democracy, economic development and rural India." Journal of Development Studies 29 (4):177-215.

 

Kennedy, Scott, ed. 2011. Beyond the Middle Kingdom: comparative perspectives on China's capitalist transformation. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

 

 

 

 

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